According to the CDC’s National Diabetes Statistics Report for 2020 cases of diabetes have risen to an estimated 34.2 million. Most patients are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Twice as many people in the United States are in a pre-diabetes state, that is, they have not yet been diagnosed with the disease, but their blood sugar levels regularly exceed the norm.
In developed countries, 10-15% of the health budget is allocated for diabetes. According to the forecasts of the International Diabetes Federation, in 2025 the costs of treatment and prevention of diabetes will be about $303 billion. 80% of the amount is spent on combating complications that arise as a result of the disease.
Today, humanity is struggling with diabetes in various ways. Let’s consider them in more detail.
Sugar reducing agents
These drugs are called antidiabetic. They regulate the activity of insulin and the susceptibility of body tissues to it. Such drugs are used to maintain blood sugar levels for people whose insulin is produced independently but in insufficient quantities. Typically, such medications are used in combination with diet and physical activity. Before starting treatment, you need to consult specialists such as a nutritionist and endocrinologist. A hugh number of suger reducing medications with full description can be found at Xl Pharmacy. Here you can also learn how to best manage patients with diabetes.
Insulin is prescribed for type 1 diabetes and, in some cases, for type 2 diabetes, as well as for surgical interventions, emergency conditions and pregnancy. An indication for the insulin injections in type 2 diabetes is the ineffectiveness of tablet preparations.
Diet as a treatment method
Diet for diabetes primarily involves a severe restriction in digestible carbohydrates. It is also necessary to use sweeteners. The Internet is full of various diets for diabetes, but you should not follow them without consulting a doctor. It is necessary to consult a specialist who will prescribe therapeutic nutrition and explain in detail its principles.
Blood sugar measurement
With the help of constant monitoring of the level of glucose in the blood serum, it is possible to detect the disease at the very early stages and prevent its development. Regular monitoring – measuring blood sugar several times a day – will help the doctor and patient increase the effectiveness of the treatment. The doctor should establish the glucose level range, but you should focus on the average figures: before eating and on an empty stomach – no more than 6 mmol / l, after eating (after two hours) – no more than 8 mmol / l.
To date, a system of professional continuous monitoring of glucose (NMH) has been developed – a technology for effective diabetes control, which allows you to track changes in glucose levels around the clock. Using the NMH system, the doctor gets a complete picture of the change in glycemia during the day. Readings take place every five minutes – 288 times a day. With the help of NMH, it is possible to evaluate how the daily routine and meals, physical activity, and the use of drugs affect glucose levels. The study also allows you to detect nocturnal hypoglycemia, the phenomenon of “morning dawn” (an increase in glucose in the morning) and hyperglycemia after eating. The system is comfortable to wear, imperceptible and waterproof. It does not cause inconvenience, allowing the patient to play sports, take a shower and go to the pool.
The most common forms of the disease are type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Their treatment has some specifics. We will talk about this below.
Type 1 diabetes treatment
Curing type 1 diabetes is not possible. The disease can be successfully controlled with insulin. Throughout life, people with this type of diabetes need insulin therapy. In this case, it is necessary to constantly monitor the level of glucose in the blood and adhere to an active lifestyle. Regular monitoring by an endocrinologist is also required.
A diet is prescribed for all diabetics, but this does not mean getting rid of tasty and beloved food. You can eat almost everything, but you need to know how much insulin to inject and when. The only thing that requires a complete exception is sweet drinks.
Type 2 diabetes treatment
In international practice, they use several levels of type 2 diabetes management: a low-carb diet, exercise complexes, medications, and hormonal injections. Diet helps to normalize sugar levels. Excess carbohydrates can be removed from the blood by physiotherapy exercises. With a complex course of the disease, both pills and insulin are prescribed.
A large number of trace elements and vitamins must be included in the diet. Physical activities, swimming, hiking, cycling are very usefu. The effect of physical education is temporary, so you should always adhere to the regimen.
There are other methods of treatment, including natural remedies or alternative medicine. However, it is necessary to consult a specialist regarding any of the methods since only a professional can diagnose the type of disease, conduct an examination and prescribe specific medications.